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Author (up) Dejean, A.; Corbara, B.; Leroy, C.; Delabie, J.H.C.; Rossi, V.; Cereghino, R. pdf  openurl
  Title Inherited Biotic Protection in a Neotropical Pioneer Plant Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages e18071  
  Abstract Chelonanthus alatus is a bat-pollinated, pioneer Gentianaceae that clusters in patches where still-standing, dried-out stems are interspersed among live individuals. Flowers bear circum-floral nectaries (CFNs) that are attractive to ants, and seed dispersal is both barochorous and anemochorous. Although, in this study, live individuals never sheltered ant colonies, dried-out hollow stems – that can remain standing for 2 years – did. Workers from species nesting in dried-out stems as well as from ground-nesting species exploited the CFNs of live C. alatus individuals in the same patches during the daytime, but were absent at night (when bat pollination occurs) on 60.5% of the plants. By visiting the CFNs, the ants indirectly protect the flowers – but not the plant foliage – from herbivorous insects. We show that this protection is provided mostly by species nesting in dried-out stems, predominantly Pseudomyrmex gracilis. That dried-out stems remain standing for years and are regularly replaced results in an opportunistic, but stable association where colonies are sheltered by one generation of dead C. alatus while the live individuals nearby, belonging to the next generation, provide them with nectar; in turn, the ants protect their flowers from herbivores. We suggest that the investment in wood by C. alatus individuals permitting still-standing, dried-out stems to shelter ant colonies constitutes an extended phenotype because foraging workers protect the flowers of live individuals in the same patch. Also, through this process these dried-out stems indirectly favor the reproduction (and so the fitness) of the next generation including both their own offspring and that of their siblings, all adding up to a potential case of inclusive fitness in plants.  
  Address [Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Celine] CNRS, Ecol Forets Guyane UMR CNRS 8172, Kourou, France, Email:  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ISI:000289057200023 Approved no  
  Call Number EcoFoG @ webmaster @ Serial 306  
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